Ecoles de commerce: passons de la critique au positif!

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« Les business-schools sont-elles la proie du conservatisme et d’un mimétisme autodestructeur? » @FR_Conversation

Si les modes organisationnels et les stratégies des écoles de commerce françaises sont loin d’être parfaits, elles ne méritent pas la pluie de critiques qu’elles subissent depuis quelques temps.

D’abord parce qu’il faudrait arrêter de regarder les écoles de commerce du point de vue de leur corps professoral, mais aussi et peut-être surtout, de celui de leurs diplômés et des entreprises.

Plutôt que de s’intéresser au taux ou niveau de publications des chercheurs, demandons-nous si nos diplômés s’insèrent facilement et correctement dans les entreprises.

Un simple coup d’œil sur le nombre et les noms des entreprises qui viennent aux forums organisés par les écoles est plutôt rassurant sur l’attractivité de ces dernières.

Les salaires d’embauche des diplômés et les temps, plutôt faibles, de recherche d’emploi sont aussi des signaux forts d’une adéquation, plutôt en phase, entre les besoins des entreprises et la formation de nos jeunes diplômés.

Je ne me lancerai pas ici dans une bataille de chiffres qui donnerait aux ronchons de service l’occasion de pinailler et je reste prudente dans le choix du vocabulaire, car il y a certainement encore une marge de progression !

Je regarde également l’évolution de carrière de certains jeunes qui ont suivi mes cours et je trouve déjà certains d’entre eux comme responsables grands comptes dans des grands groupes après seulement quelques années de vie professionnelle. Belle réussite !

Alors conservatrices les écoles de commerce ?

Rares sont les professeurs qui enseignent en école de commerce qui en sont également diplômés – si tel était le cas, ils seraient conscients de la révolution que la plupart de ces organisations ont connue en quelques décennies… Nous sommes passés d’un modèle consulaire (les écoles étaient des services des chambres de commerce)  où la plupart des enseignants étaient des professionnels de l’entreprise qui faisaient des vacations, avec un corps professoral très réduit, eux-mêmes le plus souvent issus de l’entreprise à un modèle, de plus en plus indépendant des chambres de commerce, avec un corps professoral bipartite où environ 50 % des enseignants permanents sont des professionnels de l’enseignement et des enseignants-chercheurs et environ 50 % des vacataires, dont une majorité sont des professionnels de l’entreprise en activité ou récemment retraités.

La plupart des professeurs permanents qui dirigent des programmes suivent l’évolution des métiers de l’entreprise et font appel à de nouveaux vacataires pour former les étudiants à tous ces métiers en émergence, particulièrement (mais pas seulement !) dans le digital : E-commerce, social media, content marketing, etc.

Sur cette dernière décennie, les écoles de commerce ont démultiplié les cours et les formations en anglais, les partenariats avec des universités étrangères pour organiser des semestres d’échange, voire des doubles diplômes, des possibilités de stage à l’étranger. Il se développe également des formations transverses, par exemple, ingénieur- manager ou designer-manager.

Certaines écoles ont également renforcé les moyens sur la formation à des métiers en tension: marketing digital, achats ou expertise comptable (entre autres !).

L’enseignement s’est aussi transformé de manière drastique… Utilisation d’outils digitaux, nouveaux modes d’enseignement (classes inversées, cours en distanciel, etc.).

Bien sûr, toutes les écoles ne sont pas au même niveau de maturité et de développement et ne possèdent pas les mêmes ressources.

Il reste deux points noirs que je n’ai quasiment jamais vu abordés par les écoles : la formation initiale à la pédagogie (les jeunes docteurs ou professionnels sont souvent catapultés devant les étudiants sans formation préalable à la pédagogie) et la formation continue du corps professoral permanent. Là encore, les écoles s’appuient sur des vacataires pour former les étudiants aux métiers émergents, mais forment peu leur corps professoral permanent sur l’évolution des métiers auxquels mènent leurs enseignements – ce sont les professeurs qui individuellement essaient tant bien que mal d’actualiser leurs cours.

Ceci amène des disparités dans les enseignements entre ceux qui « restent » sur un cours classique et ceux qui, par leur curiosité personnelle et leurs liens avec l’entreprise, « modernisent » leurs cours.

Il n’en reste pas moins que les écoles de commerce françaises essaient de « coller » à un monde en pleine transformation et de préparer leurs étudiants à ce monde-là.

Les écoles qui ont développé des programmes de qualité qui apparaissent aux yeux des étudiants comme les plus représentatifs de l’évolution de notre monde, c’est-à-dire qui collent à la fois à l’évolution de l’entreprise et aux aspirations des étudiants, connaissent actuellement une forte progression.

Ceci amène à nuancer le « mimétisme » des écoles de commerce – qui existe, certes, dans la gestion de la recherche ou du Programme Grande Ecole, mais certaines se sont fait une réputation sur des formations spécifiques au niveau Bachelor ou Master où elles sont reconnues pour leur excellence.

La tendance actuelle est au développement de ces programmes spécialisés, car le nombre d’étudiants issues de classes préparatoires stagne et les écoles cherchent à attirer de nouveaux publics.

Certaines écoles cherchent ainsi à développer une « compétence clé », et développer une expertise, qui, les légitime dans la création de programmes « différenciant » – par exemple,

  • En s’appuyant sur leur territoire (Kedge Wine & Spirits Academy ou BSB Wine school)
  • En mobilisant des enseignants autour d’une expertise reconnue (Institut RSE d’Audencia)
  • En jouant sur une implantation multi-campus historique (Bachelor ESCP)

La tendance n’est qu’amorcée, et il reste aux écoles à aller plus loin dans cette analyse stratégique.  Il leur faut encore s’appliquer à elles-mêmes les outils qu’elles enseignent à leurs étudiants pour repérer leurs compétences clefs ou analyser les « clusters » d’expertise de leur corps enseignant, en dépassant les frontières actuelles de leur organisation.

Certaines, risquent effectivement d’être retardées dans ce travail d’analyse,

  • Par leur mimétisme à aller vers le digital, sans toujours s’interroger au service « de quoi », elles souhaitent mettre ces outils en place ;
  • Par une population de jeunes chercheurs qui ne misent que sur le « tout recherche »;

Mais, celles qui ont déjà commencé, celles qui ont les capacités et les ressources, celles qui iront le plus vite et le plus loin dans la création de programmes différenciant, qui répondent aux besoins des entreprises et des étudiants, seront les gagnantes de demain…

Je ne parle plus seulement là de classement ou d’accréditation, mais de chiffre d’affaires et de rentabilité… Or, l’argent est le nerf de la guerre….

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