Non, il ne faut pas supprimer les classes préparatoires ! A l'heure où des dizaines de milliers de jeunes sont en panne d'affectation dans le supérieur, il ne faut pas oublier ces formations d'excellence...

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Plusieurs articles ou tribunes ont récemment critiqué les classes préparatoires.

Les critiques portaient principalement sur une formation qui semblerait privilégier le « bachotage » plutôt que la construction de savoirs individuels et le lycée comme lieu inadéquat pour la préparation, avec la proposition de poursuivre l’intégration des classes préparatoires dans l’environnement de l’université.

 En tant qu’ancienne étudiante de classes préparatoires, diplômée de l’ESCP Europe et aujourd’hui enseignant-chercheur, je suis de plus en plus agacée par ces critiques et il est temps de dire, « arrêtez de tirer sur nos classes préparatoires ! ». 

Les classes préparatoires ne sont peut-être pas parfaites mais elles restent l’un des rares domaines d’excellence de notre système éducatif public, basé sur une méritocratie scolaire et ouvertes à tous les bacheliers des filières générales et technologiques (avec des spécialisations différentes).

A la question posée, sont-elles dénuées de sens et d’utilité aujourd’hui ? La réponse est définitivement NON !

Les critiques émises à leur encontre sont-elles fondées ? La réponse est majoritairement NON !

** Les classes préparatoires comme lieu de réflexion et non de bachotage**

La critique la plus commune concernant les classes préparatoires concerne leur préparation à des concours difficiles par du « bachotage » (action de préparer un examen en vue du seul succès pratique). S’il est indéniable que la finalité de la préparation est la réussite au concours des écoles de commerce, et si possible les plus prestigieuses, ramener la classe préparatoire à un simple « bachotage » me parait des plus réducteurs… Pour avoir (en tant qu’agrégée) organisé de nombreuses « khôlles » (interrogations orales pour la préparation des concours), je passais beaucoup de temps à articuler des sujets entre la réalité économique et les théories étudiées par les étudiants et j’ai même retrouvé, pour cet article, une des questions à traiter par les étudiants : « Imaginons que cette entreprise utilise des ressources naturelles qui viennent à s’épuiser, alors commentez cette phrase « la croissance économique est une course entre l’épuisement et l’invention ».

En quoi cette phrase peut-elle également s’appliquer à la situation énergétique actuelle ? »

Je vois mal ici l’application de la notion de « bachotage »… La préparation au concours passe certes par l’apprentissage d’un programme, mais aussi par la stimulation d’une réflexion issue des connaissances ainsi acquises.

Ce travail d’acquisition des connaissances et de réflexion est mené par des enseignants qui sont des agrégés du secondaire et qui enseignent majoritairement en lycée (même si certains, dénommés PRAG, enseignent dans le supérieur). Il faut leur laisser l’enseignement en classes préparatoires.

**La formation des préparationnaires doit rester entre les mains des agrégés du secondaire**

La qualité des enseignants est rarement abordée au sujet des classes préparatoires : ils sont tous agrégés du secondaire, c’est-à-dire des enseignants ayant eux-mêmes passé le concours extrêmement exigeant de l’agrégation (voire un double concours pour ceux passés par l’Ecole Normale Supérieure et son concours d’entrée).

Les enseignants de ces classes ont ainsi la légitimité d’avoir réussi un parcours similaire, aussi sélectif (certains de ces professeurs sont sortis Majors ou dans les meilleurs rangs de l’agrégation) que celui auxquels leurs étudiants se destinent. Par delà leurs connaissances, ils sont ainsi porteurs à travers leur propre parcours d’un niveau d’exigence et d’excellence qui permet également la transmission et le développement de « soft skills », tels que l’esprit de synthèse, le développement de qualités analytiques, l’amélioration de la vitesse de lecture, mais aussi l’endurance, le dépassement de soi, la volonté de gagner.

Ainsi, cette forme d’excellence doit être valorisée, sans être exclusive, car il s’agit ici de l’aboutissement de la méritocratie scolaire et non sociale – même si trop souvent, d’excellents élèves de zones ou de milieux défavorisés s’autocensurent et si cette typologie d’élèves restent sous-représentés en classes préparatoires.

Les universitaires et les cursus universitaires n’ont ni l’expérience ni la formation ou la vocation à préparer à des concours et s’il existe des classes préparatoires à l’université (les CUPGE), ces dernières ont davantage pour vocation de servir de « produit d’appel » pour une continuation d’études universitaires plutôt que de préparer à des concours très sélectifs. (voir l’article https://www.letudiant.fr/educpros/enquetes/les-cupge-ou-l-essor-des-prepas-a-l-universite.html)

**Il faut laisser les classes préparatoires au sein des lycées**

Il faut laisser les classes préparatoires aux mains des meilleurs agrégés et également les laisser dans les lycées car l’argument du lycée comme lieu inadapté est peu convaincant; je cite l’une des critiques, « Dans la cour de récréation du lycée, ils pourront se trouver confrontés à des élèves de seconde auxquels des surveillants ou CPE donneront des heures de retenue pour mauvaise conduite. Ils seront contrôlés à l’entrée et à la sortie comme le sont les plus jeunes dont les mouvements ne sont pas libres. »

La plupart des classes préparatoires bénéficient d’un environnement dédié et spécifique au sein des lycées et si les élèves préparationnaires croisent des élèves de seconde, ils n’y sont pas « confrontés » !!

Les lycées (je ne parle pas là seulement des plus prestigieux) prennent ainsi soin de leurs classes préparatoires et leur procurent un environnement calme et studieux ainsi que les ressources nécessaires car elles participent de leur réputation pour attirer de bons élèves dans le cycle inférieur et permettent à certains lycées de banlieue une plus grande mixité sociale.

Je terminerai sur un témoignage plus personnel : quand après avoir travaillé près de 20 ans en entreprise et que  j’ai décidé de changer de carrière et de préparer l’agrégation pour enseigner – ce ne sont pas mes cours à l’ESCP Europe qui m’ont aidée (la plupart des théories enseignées alors étaient devenues obsolètes…), mais j’ai retrouvé mes vieux réflexes de classe préparatoire – sens de l’organisation, capacité à lire très rapidement, facilité à rédiger des synthèses… J’ai préparé et obtenu en neuf mois l’agrégation – c’est à ce moment-là que j’ai compris ce que m’avait apporté le sacrifice de ces 2 années passées en classe préparatoire !

Il faut peut-être réformer de manière incrémentale les classes préparatoires, mais laisser à ceux qui sont prêts à travailler dur pendant deux ans, la possibilité de le faire, dans un environnement exigeant et qui tire vers l’excellence – pas seulement pour entrer dans la meilleure école de leur choix, mais peut-être parce qu’ils auront ainsi acquis les compétences qui leur permettront de rester maître de leur destin et de se créer de nouveaux parcours professionnels…

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